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密集語言接觸教學法

Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE)

實況單

Fact Sheet

 
 

扶輪燈塔識字計畫減輕大眾文盲問題

Rotary Lighthouse Literacy Project for Alleviating Mass Illiteracy 

密集語言接觸教學法計畫:一種終生技能辦法

Concentrated Language Encounter Programs:  A Life-Skills Approach 

以全球性的規模減輕大眾文盲問題是減輕衛生、飢餓及其他世界性問題所不可或缺的條件。扶輪第一個大規模國際性識字計畫於19871992年在泰國實施,並且由扶輪基金會提供經費,所使用的是密集語言接觸教學法(CLE)或稱之為「燈塔」的辦法。此一計畫非常成功,因此最後廣為全泰國所有政府設立的學校所採用,並且在其他國家扶輪社及地區扮演主要角色減輕自己國家大眾文盲問題時提供所需的靈感、範例及技術支援。

Alleviation of mass illiteracy on a global scale is essential to the alleviation of health, hunger and other major world problems. The first large scale international Rotary literacy project was implemented in Thailand from 1987-92 and funded by the Rotary Foundation. It used the Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE) or “Lighthouse” approach. The program was so successful it was eventually adopted by all government schools throughout Thailand and provided Rotary clubs and districts in other countries with the inspiration, example, and technical support needed to play a major role in alleviating mass literacy problems in their own countries. 

密集語言接觸(CLE)教學法簡覽

A Brief Overview of Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE) Teaching Techniques

密集語言接觸教學法計畫是「漸浸式」的計畫,學生在團體活動課程中以口說及書寫語文學習新的且困難漸增的事物。此一教學法另一項特點是所謂的「鷹架法」,由教師先豎立希望學生所作的模範,然後提供的指導愈來愈少,讓學生愈來愈能夠在沒有支援下自行學習。

CLE programs are “immersion” programs in which students do new and increasingly more difficult things with spoken and written language in the course of group activity. Another strong feature of the methodology is called “scaffolding” whereby the teacher first models what students are expected to do, and then provides less and less guidance as students become more and more able to work without support. 

有文句為基礎及活動為基礎的密集語言接觸教學法計畫單元。文句基礎計畫單元開始時先一同閱讀文句,然後學習者與教師進行各種輔助瞭解文句意義的活動,然後學習者與教師合作寫出自己的文句,接下來以語言活動發展更多特定的識字技能,例如認字、造句、拼字、標點、及文法。活動基礎計畫,主要用於成人識字教育,開始時先展示一個架構好的活動,例如按部就班作某件事,然後如同文句基礎計畫單元一般,學習者與教師合作寫出自己的文句,但是這次是說明如何辦理一個活動,或是說明在活動中作些什麼事,再藉此作為發展特定的識字技能的活動的基礎。

There are text-based and activity-based CLE program units. A text-based program unit begins with shared reading of text. Then, the learners and the teacher undertake various activities to aid understanding of the meaning of the text. Thirdly, the learners and the teacher work together to write their own text. That is followed by language activities to develop more specific literacy skills such as word recognition, sentence construction, spelling, punctuation and grammar. An activity based program, primarily used in adult literacy programs, begins with the demonstration of a structured activity such as making something, step by step. Then, as in a text-based unit, the learners and teacher work together to write a text, this time telling either how to carry out the activity or what they did in the activity. Again, that is used as a basis for activities for developing specific literacy skills. 

密集語言接觸教學法計畫因地制宜由在使用它的地方的教育者所擬定。扶輪燈塔識字計畫則是使扶輪社員能夠及並指導扶輪社員管理識字計畫、協助當地教育者進行密集語言接觸教學法訓練、及督導與支援他們訂定與實施指導識字計畫。

CLE programs are developed where they are to be used, by the educators who will be using them. Rotary Lighthouse Literacy projects enable and guide local Rotarians as they administer literacy projects, assist with the CLE training of local educators, and monitor and support them as they build and implement the literacy programs. 

扶輪密集語言接觸教學法計畫已在以下四種環境實施:

Rotary CLE programs have been implemented in four kinds of settings: 

˙     正式初級()學校系統,例如在泰國起始的3-H識字計畫Formal elementary school systems, such as the original 3-H literacy project in Thailand.

˙     非正式教育成人的完整教育及職訓計畫,尤其以文盲婦女為重點Non-formal education-integrated literacy and vocational programs for adults, with a particular focus on illiterate women.

˙     街童(年齡較大的失學兒童)計畫Programs for street children (older children not at school).

˙     如盲童之類的特殊兒童計畫Programs for special groups such as children who are blind.

 

燈塔策略

The Lighthouse Strategy 

國際扶輪識字委員會及特別工作小組使用燈塔策略幫助在開發中世界不同區域的國家中發展有效的扶輪密集語言接觸教學法計畫,作為扶輪幫助減輕大眾文盲問題的基礎。燈塔策略是為了發展一個將在某地辦理有效的識字計畫,並在種種證據顯示該計畫極有效果下推廣至全省或全國。為此理由,建議識字計畫應經試驗、試辦及擴展階段。

The RI Literacy Committee and Task Forces use the Lighthouse Strategy to help develop effective CLE programs in nations in different parts of the developing world as a basis for Rotary to help alleviate mass illiteracy. The Lighthouse strategy is to develop a program where it is to be used and to make it so evidently effective that it will be spread more widely – across an entire province or country. For that reason, it is recommended that program development go through trial, pilot, and extension stages. 

密集語言接觸(CLE)教學法成功的重點報導

Highlights of CLE Success 

在開發中世界所有地域現在都有扶輪燈塔識字計畫。

There are now rotary Lighthouse Literacy projects in all regions of the developing world. 

孟加拉  1997年在孟加拉教育部接受於該國試辦3-H密集語言接觸教學法計畫的工作及全心投入此一工作之後,又展開第二次3-H密集語言接觸教學法計畫。此一3-H計畫的目的是為了在555個選出的小學以各年級共349,987名學生為對象實施密集語言接觸教學法,最後由孟加拉政府把此一計畫推介至全國辦理。目前,有200位講解及督導辦事人員在與達卡初級教育理事會合作下參與其事,此一密集語言接觸教學法計畫正由4436位教師利用此一計畫中已發展出來的可重複使用課堂資料袋教導識字。

Bangladesh. In 1997, a second 3-H CLE project began in Bangladesh after acceptance by the Ministry of Education of Bangladesh of the pilot work there, and their wholehearted commitment to the work. The objective of the 3-H project is to implement the CLE teaching technique in all grade levels of 555 selected primary schools with 349,987 students, and finally for the Government of Bangladesh to introduce the program across the nation. Currently, the project involves 200 instructional and supervisory staff working in conjunction with the Directorate ot Primary Education in Dhaka, and the CLE program is being taught by 4436 teachers, using the reusable classroom kits that have been developed within the project. 

南非  透過一項配合獎助金試辦計畫在南非西角省的貧民學校,利用以3種語文編印的「初學者」書籍,辦理了一個3種語文的成功密集語言接觸教學法計畫。南非教育部媒體處編印教師手冊、製作錄影帶及其他推廣此一計畫所需物品。先前在2000年,已有一項大規模3-H識字計畫在教育當局充分配合下展開。南非西角省的扶輪社也成功參與多項為文盲成人舉辦的大規模密集語言接觸教學法計畫。

South Africa. Through a Matching Grant pilot project for disadvantaged schools in the West Cape Province of South Africa, a very successful CLE program in 3 languages was developed, using “starter” books that were printed in 3 languages. The media division of the Department of Education printed a teachers’ manual, produced videos and other items that were needed to spread the program more widely. A large-scale Rotary 3)H Literacy Project began there with full cooperation from the education authorities in the year 2000. Rotary clubs in the East Cape Province are also involved in very successful large-scale CLE programs for illiterate adults. 

巴西  為小學舉辦的配合獎助金識字試辦計畫1998年在巴西展開,到了1999年之前,共有22個小學7000名學生參與。此一識字工作擴及街童與亟需識字的特殊團體。扶輪基金會保管委員會最近已核准一項3-H獎助金以推廣此一計畫。

Brazil. Matching Grant pilot projects for elementary schools began in Brazil in 1998, and by 1999, 22 schools with 7000 students were involved. The work has extended to street children and other special groups with high need. The Trustees of the Rotary Foundation have recently approved a #_H Grant to spread this pilot work much more widely. 

土耳其  在國際扶輪識字特別工作小組技術協助下,土耳其伊士麥的扶輪社員在1998年,在與土耳其教育部繼續教育處達成協議下,開始支援為成人舉辦的密集語言接觸教學法計畫。此一計畫透過扶輪基金會配合獎助金擴展至土耳其的其他地方,參與其中的教師很驚訝他們的學生學習識字閱讀的速度及有興趣學習識字閱讀可能成為識字班學生的人數增加的情形令人難以置信。最近扶輪基金會核准一項3-H獎助金在土耳其全國推廣識字工作使此一計畫達到頂點。

Turkey. With technical assistance from an RI Literacy Task Force, Rotarians in Ismir, Turkey began supporting CLE courses for adults in 1998, under a protocol agreed on with the Continuing Education Department of the Ministry of Education. The project was extended to other parts of Turkey, through a Rotary Foundation Matching Grant, and teachers within the projects were amazed at the rate at which their students learned to read and how the interest from prospective students increased incredibly. The culmination has been the recent approval of a 3-H Grant to spread the work nationwide. 

其他國家的識字計畫

Projects in Other Countries 

試辦燈塔密集語言接觸教學法計畫,通常透過配合獎助金,已在其他許多國家展開。這些國家包括阿根廷、肯亞、奈及利亞、納密比亞、萬納杜、菲律賓、尼泊爾、印度、及巴基斯坦。在埃及的扶輪密集語言接觸教學法計畫尤為引人注目,扶輪社與教育當局合作為文盲成人舉辦的扶輪密集語言接觸教學法計畫非常成功,在幾乎全由埃及政府管理之下,經費由埃及提供,技術支援則由前扶輪識字及算術特別工作小組負責。

Pilot Lighthouse CLE Literacy Projects have been set up in many other countries, usually through Matching Grants. Those countries include Argentina, Kenya, Nigeria, Namibia, Vanuatu, the Philippines, Nepal, India, and Pakistan. Rotary CLE programs in Egypt are particularly remarkable in that Rotary clubs, in cooperation with education authorities, have set up very successful Rotary CLE programs for illiterate adults. These are in almost all of the governates of the country, funded from within Egypt, and with technical support from past Rotary Literacy and Numeracy Task Forces. 

2003-04年度地區總監如何幫忙

How 2003-04 District Governors can help

現在仍有許多地方亟需辦理扶輪燈塔識字計畫。請考慮:

Rotary Lighthouse Literacy Projects are still desperately needed in many places. PLEASE CONSIDER:

˙      指派一個地區識字委員會Appointing a District Literacy Committee

˙      敦促地區內的扶輪社發展一個當地的識字計畫,或贊助一個國外扶輪社申請配合獎助金的識字計畫Urging your clubs either to develop a local literacy project or sponsor a Matching Grant application from an overseas club.

˙      如欲瞭解更多資訊,請與2003-04年識字及教育特別工作小組聯絡。CONTACT THE 2003-04 RI LITERACY and EDUCATION TASK FORCE FOR MORE INFORMATION.