The Forgotten Avenue of Service
( The Rotarian, Oct., 2003/扶輪月刊2003/10)
為了慶祝2005年2月的扶輪百週年紀念，國際扶輪委託美國紐澤西州馬樂頓(Marlton)扶輪社社員，同時也是知名作家的大衛．佛沃德(David C. Forward)撰寫一本關於扶輪100年的書。這本名為「一世紀服務：國際扶輪的故事」(A Century of Service: The Story of Rotary International )的書描述國際扶輪、扶輪基金會及其計劃的演進程。為了讓大家先睹為快，我們將定期刊出特選精華書摘。有鑑於本月係職業服務月，我們選出其中第13章「透過職業從事服務」(Service through Their Vocations.)的部份內容供大家欣賞。
To commemorate the Rotary Centennial in 2004-05, Rotary International commissioned author David C. Forward, a member of the Rotary Club of Marlton, N.J., USA, to write a book on the first 100 years of Rotary. A Century of Service: The Story of Rotary International describes the evolution of RI, The Rotary Foundation, and their programs. To give you a sneak preview, we will periodically feature excerpts from the book. In a tribute to Vocational Service Month this month, we present a selection from chapter 13, “Serving through Their Vocations.”
The Four-Way Test
When the Great Depression hit in 1930, many Rotarians faced the greatest challenge of their lives. There was no better time to test for ethical conduct than during such a dire economic crisis and the scramble to survive.
身為芝加哥扶輪社社員的賀伯．泰勒(Herbert J. Taylor)於1932年應邀接掌瀕臨破產的克拉伯鋁業公司(Club Aluminum Company)。對這家當時已經用盡資金，員工士氣低落，且面對其他同樣陷入困境的同業激烈競爭的公司而言，此舉已是手中最後一步棋。泰勒利用扶輪經驗擬出一套由24個英文字組成的職業守則，作為個人日常決策的依據。他發現這套道德指針對自己幫助極大，於是召集所有部門主管，要求他們據以實踐。由於這套守則共有4點，所以泰勒稱之為「四大考驗」：
Herbert J. Taylor, a member of the rotary Club of Chicago, was asked to take over the near-bankrupt Club Aluminum Company in 1932. It was a last-ditch effort to save the company, which had no money, low employee morale, and ruthless competition from other firms in similar straits. Taylor used his Rotary background to draft a24-word code of conduct that he used to guide all his daily decisions. He found this ethical compass so helpful that he called all the department heads together and asked them to do the same. The code had four points, so Taylor called it “The Four-way Test”:
“Of all the things we think, say or do:
1. 是否一切屬於真實？(Is it the TRUTH?)
2. 是否各方得到公平？(Is it FAIR to all concerned?)
3. 能否促進親善友誼？(Will it build GOODWILL and BETTER FRIENDSHIPS?)
4. 能否兼顧彼此利益？(Will it be BENEFICIAL to all concerned?”)
Club Aluminum applied The Four-Way Test to its dealings with employees, customers, dealers, and suppliers. It deliberately walked away from business that, while profitable, would have failed one or more of its standards. The company’s fortunes turned around: it eliminated its debt and over the next 15years paid out $1million in dividends while building a net worth of $2million. Herb Taylor credited The Four-Way Test for this reversal in fortune. The RI Board voted to officially adopt The Four-Way Test in 1943, and when Herb Taylor became RI president in 1945, he donated the copyright of the test to the association. The test has been translated into the languages of more than 100countries.
A Japanese rotary club printed The Four-Way Test on loan umbrellas for railway passengers at the railway station. The Rotary Club of Bayswater, Vic., Australia, sponsored an essay and poster contest among the town’s 11-to-14year olds using as its theme “A man’s struggle with his conscience.“ Astronaut Buzz Aldrin planted a four-Way Test pin on the Moon’s surface. In Meerut, India, the rotary club erected a stone pillar along the highway, inscribed with The Four-way Test, and similar monuments were built in public parks by Rotary clubs in Brazil, the Philippines, and Japan. It has appeared in gymnasia, courtrooms, and labor contracts. Today, the test is found on highway billboards, in schoolrooms and halls of government, and on the walls of businesses the world over.
職業服務一直是扶輪的核心所在。1987-88，國際扶輪社長凱勒(Charles C. Keller)試圖重振這個服務途徑，特別成立50年來第一個職業服務委員會，由來自田納西州的威廉．薩京(William Sergeant)擔任主委。該委員會新制定一套影響深達的「扶輪社員事業及專業宣言」，驗證了扶輪社員對於職業服務的持續投入。
Vocational Service remains at the heart of rotary. In 1987-88, RI President Charles C. Keller reinvigorated the Avenue by appointing the first vocational Service Committee in 50 years, chaired by William Sergeant of Tennessee. The committee drafted the new and influential declaration of Rotarians in Businesses and Professions, testimony to Rotarians’ enduring dedication to Vocational Service.
A Century of Service will be officially released at the International Assembly in early 2004, in English. It will be available in the other five major Rotary languages (French, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, and Spanish) by 1 July 2004. To preorder a copy (pub. No. 913), contact RI’s Publications Order Services, Tel.: (847)866-4600; Fax: (847)866-3267. Those who preorder by 31March will receive a free CD version as a bonus.